For the invasion of the Soviet Union Germany deployed the 88s in 51 mixed flak battalions. They were mostly Luftwaffe-subordinated units attached to the Heer on a corps or army level, with approximately one battalion per corps. The weapon saw continuous use on the eastern front. The appearance of the outstanding T-34 and KV tanks shocked the German tank crews and antitank teams, who could only penetrate the Soviet tanks' armour at extremely close range when using the standard 37 mm and 50 mm guns.